Although many of these techniques have demonstrated success in memory performance, it is important to understand that there are a multitude of factors that can potentially influence the effectiveness of these strategies. For example, researchers found that the order in which information is studied, or practiced, within metacognitive regulation impacts the effectiveness of the entire strategy. This topic is demonstrated by Mecalfe’s work who observed that the best performance results in studying for memory was when self-paced study focused on information that was easy to understand first, before moving on to topics that required more cognitive resources to understand (Koriat, 2007). Another influencer on the effectiveness of metacognitive regulation were feelings of self-confidence and self-efficacy. Researchers found that those who had more confidence in their abilities were more likely to utilize self-regulations strategies that benefited their memory recall (Koriat, 2007). Metacognitive regulation effectiveness has also been shown to be impacted by one’s ability to look inward and their locus of control, or a self-measurement of one’s ability to influence the impact of outside forces. For example, research indicates that as one gets older, they shift from an internal to an external locus of control, meaning they feel as though they have less control of external factors. This shift in belief has been correlated to a negative impact on the effectiveness of one’s use of metacognitive strategies (Hertzog, Dixon, & Hultsch, 1990; Irak & Capan, 2018).
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